Mules and Donkeys in the Bible

When I posted this on Facebook about mules in the Bible…

Origins: The mule is mentioned in mankind’s earliest records. Consider this passage from the Bible: “And Absolom met the servants of David. And Absolom rode upon a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the Heavens and the earth, and the mule that was under him went away.” (II Samuel 18:9). If you choose to ride a mule, you will need a good sense of humor!!!

…we were asked about mules really being in the Bible.  We sent an email to a Rabbi inquiring about the translation of the ancient Hebrew word for “mule” or “pered.” Here is the reply:

“Solomon rode on a mule (1Ki 1:38) because his father David told  Zadok, Nathan, and Benaiah to “cause Solomon my son to ride upon mine own mule” (v 33).  This is the word for a “she-mule” (BDB, TWOT). Its three Old Testament uses are all in this  passage (see v 44), referring to one mule, David’s. Solomon’s riding on David’s mule in  company with David’s advisors gave a clear message: he was the successor David had  chosen. Years later in secular history, female mules became preferable for riding and males  for bearing burdens. That may have been a factor in David’s having this special mule.  Second, an observation. David’s sons all rode on (male) mules (2Sa 13:29) and Absalom  rode a mule at the end of his life (2Sa 18:9). Since a mule is crossbred between a mare and  a male donkey, and since crossbreeding was prohibited in Israel (Lev 19:19), mules were  likely imported (TWOT), and were thus more valued. They (along with horses, silver, and  gold, etc.) symbolized the wealth that other kings brought to Solomon annually (1Ki 10:25).  Third, a suggestion. The greatest reason for David’s choice of a mule rather than a horse  may have been God’s prohibition for kings (Deu 17:16): they were not to multiply horses to  themselves. David was careful in this. Solomon, to his own destruction, was not (1Ki 10:26,  28).”